List of Lecture Demonstrations ISU Physics and Astronomy

Kinematics Energy and Momentum Dynamics Surface Tension
Circular Motion Rotation Statics Hydrostatics
Hydrodynamics Simple Harmonic  Motion Wave Motion and Sound  


Statics Current Magnetism Induction
Alternating Current Heat Light Nuclear
Go To Index of Videos, and Laser Disks

View this index in PDF form.


M-K1  Addition of Vectors: A moving toy car on a moving road.

M-K2  Independence of free fall and initial velocity: A ball shot vertically from a moving car
lands back on the cart.

M-K3   Independence of free fall and initial velocity: The motions of two falling balls, one dropped
and one projected horizontally, are compared.

M-K4  Independence of free fall and initial velocity: Shooting a falling target with a dart gun. We have a new and easier setup on this old favorite.

M-K5  Stroboscopic observation of motion.

M-K6  Vectors: Shadow projection of a vector to obtain a component.

M-K7  Uniformly accelerated linear motion: A roller on an inclined plane.

M-K8  Uniformly accelerated linear motion: A falling projectile leaves a position versus time record on a spark tape which can be shown on an overhead projector.

Return to top of page




M-D1    Acceleration is an inverse function of mass: A spring-driven auto with weights.

M-D2    Force action and reaction: A spring-driven auto on a glass road on an air table.

M-D3    Acceleration of a body does not depend upon the source of the force: Two large equipment carts and a rope. Or two roller skates and a rope.

M-D4    Acceleration is an inverse function of mass: Two unequally loaded carts shoot apart by a spring.

M-D5    The large air track

M-D6    Inertia experiment: A steel ball resting on a removable card.

M-D7    Inertia experiment: A heavy ball suspended by a string.

M-D8    Inertia experiment: A wooden pencil standing on end on a piece of paper.

M-D9    Rocket propulsion: A CO2 propelled rocket plane on overhead wire.

M-D10  Gravitation: A coin and a wad of cotton fall in an evacuated glass cylinder.

M-D11  The air table

M-D12  Inertial mass: An inertial balance whose oscillation frequency is a measure of the mass of an object placed on a platform.

M-D13  Newton's Laws: A working version of Atwood's machine.

M-D14  Gravitation: A laser beam aimed at the mirror of a Cavendish balance is reflected onto a wall or a screen.

M-D15  Chaos pendulum

M-D16  Hovercraft

Return to top of page



M-Eng Mom 1    Conservation of energy: A large pendulum suspended from the ceiling.

M-Eng Mom 2    Conservation of momentum: A ballistic pendulum.
M-Eng Mom 3    Nearly elastic collisions: Steel impact balls.

M-Eng Mom 4    Conservation of energy: A toy yo-yo.

M-Eng Mom 5    Conservation of energy: A pendulum with a changeable length.

M-Eng Mom 6    Conservation of energy: Rollers on inclined planes.

M-Eng Mom 7    Conservation of energy: Roller on a wavy track.

M-Eng Mom 8    Conservation of energy: Ball in a glass funnel.

M-Eng Mom 9    Potential energy and neutral equilibrium: Parallelogram configuration of the platform balance.

M-Eng Mom 10  Conservation of energy: The pile driver.

M-Eng Mom 11  Mechanical system seeks minimum potential energy: Double cone on sloped diverging rails.

M-Eng Mom 12  The air track and air table

M-Eng Mom 13  Conservation of energy: A bowling ball suspended from the ceiling is used to demonstrate potential energy transformed into kinetic energy.

M-Eng Mom 14  Conservation of energy: A flexible track for constructing a loop-the-loop.

M-Eng Mom 15  Conservation of energy: A can containing a hidden weight on a horizontally stretched rubber band returns after being rolled away.

M-Eng Mom 16  Impulse: The average force between a hammer and a nail are estimated by measuring the contact time. A vise can also be used to estimate the force necessary to advance the nail into a board.
M-Eng Mom 17  Center of mass: A set of heavy cardboards which are tossed in the air to illustrate the parabolic motion of the center of mass point.

M-Eng Mom 18  Conservation of energy: The Hopper Popper. A hollow rubber hemisphere turned inside out gains kinetic energy when dropped.

M-Eng Mom 19  Conservation of angular momentum: rattleback.
M-Eng Mom 20  The vortex: (similar to M-Eng Mom 8) A cent or ball enters the funnel with some kinetic energy and spins round and round.
M-Eng Mom 21  Happy ball/Sad ball: Identical-looking balls show the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions.


Return to top of page



M-ST1  Pressure in a small soap bubble is greater than in a large bubble: A small bubble blows up a large bubble.

M-ST2  Strength of surface tension of water: The containing of water in a sieve or strainer.

M-ST3  Strength of surface tension of water: Cheesecloth and a glass tumbler.

M-ST4  Soap films on wire frames.

M-ST5  The lowering of the surface tension of water by camphor: A camphor-driven paper boat.


Return to top of page



M-CM1  Angular Measurement: Device showing a variable angle.

M-CM2  Forces in circular motion: A large conical pendulum hung from ceiling.

M-CM3  Forces in vertical circular motion: Pail or glass with water spun by hand in a vertical circle.

M-CM4  Forces in circular motion: A rolling chain loop.

M-CM5  Forces in circular motion: Mechanical model of a cream separator.

M-CM6  Forces in circular motion: Steam engine fly-ball governor.

M-CM7  Forces in circular motion: Puzzle consisting of two balls mounted on a wooden arc.

M-CM8  The centrifuge: Separation of mercury from colored water in a model centrifuge.

M-CM9  Forces in vertical circular motion: A penny balanced on a coat hanger is spun in a vertical circle.


Return to top of page



M-Rot 1  Moment of inertia and conservation of energy: Various cylinders and spheres on an inclined plane.

M-Rot 2  Conservation of angular momentum: Two masses spinning in a circle of variable radius.

M-Rot 3  Conservation of angular momentum: A bicycle wheel and a large rotating platform.

M-Rot 4  Principles of the gyroscope.

M-Rot 5  A falling stick which pivots about one end has points that accelerate faster than g: A hinged stick with several cups attached to catch a ball.

M-Rot 6  Rigid body rotation: A bowling ball mounted on an air bearing demonstrates precession and nutations.

M-Rot 7  Moment of inertia: A set of two long similar tubes of equal mass, one weighted in the center and one weighted at the ends.

M-Rot 8  Conservation of angular momentum: Hoberman Sphere, a colorful plastic globe that can contract and expand.

Return to top of page



M-S1    Normal and frictional components of a contact force: Object in equilibrium on a large inclined plane.

M-S2    Equilibrium of forces: A weight supported in the middle of a long, nearly horizontal rope.

M-S3    Fooling the senses: Two identical packages, one light and one heavy.

M-S4    Simple machines: Various pulley systems.

M-S5    Equilibrium of forces on an extended body: Long plank supported by two scales.

M-S6    Influence of normal force on friction: Meter stick on two movable supports.

M-S7    Equilibrium of forces on an extended body: Toy monkey on a string who goes up when pulled down!

M-S8    Equilibrium near a potential energy minimum: A loaded disc on an inclined plane.

M-S9    Stable equilibrium when center of gravity is over the base of an object: Model of the leaning power of Pisa.

M-S10  Equilibrium of forces on an extended body: A large slipping ladder for the lecturer to climb.

M-S11  Potential energy and neutral equilibrium: Parallelogram configuration of the platform balance - same as Eng-Mom 9.

M-S12  Equilibrium of forces on an extended body: A string which supports a floating object at one end always remains vertical.

M-S13  Simple machines: A differential hoist supporting a heavy weight.

M-S14  Quasi-equilibrium of forces on an extended body: Large yellow yo-yo that can be made to roll forward, backward or to skid.

M-S15  Orientation of frictional force: A wooden block held between the hands.

M-S16  Stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium: A solid cone.

M-S17  Simple machines: A screwjack.

M-S18  Equilibrium of forces on an extended body: Model sailboat in a tank of water.

M-S19  Equilibrium near a potential energy minimum: Hammer tied to meter stick dangling below support point.

M-S20  Equilibrium of forces on extended bodies: One side of an arch is constructed of similar blocks past the point most students expect collapse.

M-S21  Equilibrium near a potential energy minimum: A toy clown with long weighted outriggers rides a unicycle on a sloped high wire.

Return to top of page


Mechanics - Hydrostatics

M-HS1   Pascal's Principle: The hydraulic press.

M-HS2   Pressure in a liquid yields a force outwardly normal to the container surface: Tube with a bottom made of sheet of plastic in a vessel of water.

M-HS3   Buoyancy of a compressible object whose average density is nearly that of water: The cartesian diver.

M-HS4   Pressure in a liquid yields a force outwardly normal to the container surface: A flat object pressed flat against the bottom in a container of mercury will remain in place.

M-HS5   Pressure in a liquid in an open vessel depends only on the depth below the free surface: Pascal's vases.

M-HS6   Air has weight: Balance with a hollow sphere that can be evacuated.

M-HS7   Atmospheric pressure: A large weight is lifted by a piston subjected to atmospheric pressure on one side.

M-HS8   Hydraulic puzzle.

M-HS9   The siphon: A water siphon and a gaseous CO2 siphon.

M-HS10 Atmospheric pressure: Magdeburg hemispheres.

M-HS11 The response of a mercury barometer to changing pressure: A mercury barometer and a vacuum pump.

M-HS12 Buoyant objects in accelerating fluids: A balloon in a car or a cork in a bottle. Accelometer: ping pong ball in water.

M-HS13 Pressure gauges: A Bourdon gauge and an aneroid gauge.

M-HS14 Pressure in a liquid depends on its density and the depth: A U-tube with water in one side and kerosene in the other.

M-HS15 Atmospheric pressure: A board extending over the edge of a table and covered by a newspaper at the other end is broken when the free end is struck sharply.

M-HS16 Buoyancy: Sinking battleship.

M-HS17 Buoyancy: A vat full of water (brimful) and the same vat full of water with wood floating in it.

M-HS18 Pressure in a liquid: The pressure in a liquid increases as the depth below the surface of the liquid increases.

M-HS19 Atmospheric pressure: To show how substantial atmospheric pressure is by vacuuming a can (if you can find one) to crush it.

M-HS20 Atmospheric pressure: Air in a metal can is replaced with water vapor (steam) which is condense back to water thereby creating a partial vacuum, and the can is crushed by external atmospheric pressure.


Return to top of page


Mechanics - Hydrodynamics

M-HD-1 The water bell.

M-HD-3 Bernoulli's principle: A ball drawn into a funnel and a card drawn to a flat disc with air emerging through a hole in its center.

M-HD-2 Bernoulli's principle applied to jets: Balls in water and air jets, drawing together of two balls by an air jet, the atomizer.

M-HD-4 Bernoulli's principle applied to jets: A balloon supported by a vertical column of air from an electric fan.

M-HD-6 Bernoulli's principle: Ping pong balls supported above metal tube with holes.

M-HD-7 Bernoulli's principle: Ping pong ball supported by air flow from funnel above it.

M-HD-5 The Magnus phenomenon: Throw curve balls with a launching trough .

Return to top of page



M-SHM1  Comparison of projected circular motion and simple harmonic motion: A rotating wheel and a mass on a spring.

M-SHM2  Simple harmonic motion: A vibrating hacksaw blade.

M-SHM3  Simple harmonic motion: A large pendulum suspended from the ceiling.

M-SHM4  Simple harmonic motion: A small torsional pendulum with an adjustable moment of inertia.

M-SHM5  Simple harmonic motion: A heavy physical pendulum with adjustable period.

M-SHM6  Coupled oscillators and resonance: Two coupled pendula of similar length; a Wilburforce pendulum constructed of a mass on a helical spring tuned to have a vertical translational frequency nearly equal to the rotational frequency.

M-SHM7  Lissajous patterns: Pasco synthesizer allows perfectly stable patterns to be displayed on an oscilloscope.

M-SHM8  Simple harmonic motion: A large torsional pendulum.


See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page



WMS-1    Types of traveling waves: The large, mechanical wave machine.

WMS-2    Transverse waves: Waves on a hand-driven rope, standing wave on a machine driven string.

WMS-3    Longitudinal waves: A giant slinky suspended horizontally.

WMS-4    Propagation of waves: A commercial ripple tank.

WMS-5    Propagation of sound: A set of large, glass slides.

WMS-6    Refraction of waves: A mechanical analog.

WMS-7    Synthesis of standing waves: A small mechanical wave machine whose shadow is projected.

WMS-8    Standing sound waves: Speakers, microphone, and oscilloscope.

WMS-9    Standing waves on a vibrating plate: Nodes of two-dimensional standing waves are made apparent by sand on vibrating Chladni plates.

WMS-10  A sounding body is in mechanical motion: A tuning fork and ping pong ball.

WMS-11  The motion of a tuning fork: A large tuning fork and a stroboscope.

WMS-12  The frequency limit of human hearing: Galton whistle, oscillator, speaker, microphone and oscilloscope.

WMS-13  Relation of pitch to frequency: The siren and a card held against a toothed wheel.

WMS-14  Sound does not travel through a vacuum: An evacuated jar containing a bell.

WMS-15  Reflection of sound waves: A watch at the focus of a large parabolic mirror can be heard tens of feet away.

WMS-16  High quality sound rods and forks.

WMS-17  Three dimensional standing sound waves: Two speakers, oscillator, and amplifier generate standing waves throughout lecture room.

WMS-18  Interference of sound waves of differing frequency (beats): Two audio oscillators with speakers or two similar organ pipes.

WMS-19  Interference of sound waves of the same frequency: A special tuning fork designed to radiate from the prongs.

WMS-20  The Doppler effect: A mechanical analog of a traveling string with paper riders.

WMS-21  Resonance: A set of two sounding bars, one of which can excite the other from a large distance.

WMS-22  The pitch of an instrument depends on the speed of sound: An organ pipe that is sounded with either air or natural gas.

WMS-23  Resonance: Amplifying the sound from a tuning fork with your large open mouth.

WMS-24  The pitch of an instrument depends on the speed of sound: Speaking with your vocal cavities filled with helium.

WMS-25  An artificial larynx.

WMS-26  The vibrational frequency of a struck bar depends on its rigidity: Wooden bars with rectangular cross sections.

WMS-27  Resonant frequencies of objects depend on their dimensions: Musical slats.

WMS-28  Vibrating bars: The metallophone, a xylophone-like instrument.

WMS-29  The harmonic nature of the overtones of a vibrating string: The sonometer.

WMS-30  Combinational tones: The audience hopefully hears the sum and difference frequencies of two loud tones.

WMS-31  The harmonic nature of the overtones of a vibrating air column: The harmonic pipe.

WMS-32  Pre-recorded effects: A set of two records demonstrating various musical and physical effects, including musical scales, overtones and the Doppler effect.

WMS-33  Standing sound waves: A flexible corrugated plastic tube emits a loud pure tone when swung in a circle while holding one end. [AJP 42, 278 (1974)].

WMS-34  Standing sound waves: Long aluminum rod rings loud and clear when held at a nodal point and stroked longitudinally with rosin on chamois.

WMS-35  Fourier synthesis: Several periodic waveforms can be approximated with up to 9 harmonics using the Fourier synthesizer and oscilloscope.

WMS-36  Interference of waves: Transparencies to show Moire interference patterns.

WMS-37  Wave propagation, interference and diffraction: A set of three ultrasonic transducers can be used to show traveling sinusoidal waves, double source interference, and diffraction.

WMS-38  Standing waves: A long thin plastic rod shaken by hand.

WMS-39  Resonance: Three pairs of rods weighted at the free ends. When a rod is made to vibrate, the corresponding pair also vibrates.

WMS-40  Organ pipe.

WMS-41  Resonance demo with a drinking straw.

WMS-42  The wave demonstrator.

WMS-43  Beats using 2 function generators.

WMS-44  Standing wave patterns in a closed box. Volume is adjustable.

WMS-45  Doppler whistle. Sonalert connected to a power supply.

WMS-46  Doppler whistle on a motor.

WMS-47  Interference of two sources: The locus of points in 3-dimensional space.
WMS-48  Musical Instruments: Collection of miscellaneous musical instruments.
WMS-49  Savart's Wheels: Teeth with a ratio of 4, 5, 6, and 8 produce a major chord.
WMS-50  Speaker and Candle: a flickering candle demonstrates the longitudinal nature of sound waves.
WMS-51  Kundt's Tube: a glass tube show standing wave generated from a speaker.
WMS-52  High frequency electromagnetic waves:
WMS-53  Consonance, Dissonance, and Beats

See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page



H-1    An exhibit of thermometers.

H-2    Thermal expansion of materials: The expansion of a long current-carrying wire.

H-3    Differential thermal expansion: Various bimetallic strips with one arranged to open and close a switch to turn lights on.

H-4    Thermal expansion of a gas: The Galilean gas thermometer, an early type of gas thermometer.

H-5    Differential gas thermometer: Franklin's pulse or palm glass.

H-6    Thermal expansion of materials: The demonstration of the expansion of a hole using a ball and ring.

H-7    Thermal expansion of materials: The expansion of a cavity in a solid is demonstrated by noting the initial reverse response of a model thermometer.

H-8    Thermal expansion of materials: A working model of a compensated pendulum.

H-9    The measurement of temperature differences and thermal radiation: The thermocouple and the thermopile.

H-10  The dependence of the electrical resistance of metals on temperature: An electric light is greatly dimmed by the heating of wire in series with it.

H-11  The principles and simulation of optical pyrometer.

H-12  Low temperature behavior of materials: Various liquid nitrogen demonstrations.

H-13  An alloy with a melting point near room temperature: A teaspoon made of Wood's metal melts in a cup of hot water.

H-14  Thermal conductivity: The thermal diffusivity (conductivity) of various rods with uniformly spaced balls supported by wax are compared.

H-15  Thermal conductivity: The boiling of water in a paper box over an open flame.

H-16  Thermal conductivity: A flame chars thin paper in contact with wood but not paper in contact with metal.

H-17  Thermal conductivity and the flash point of a gas: The containment of a flame by a wire screen - the Davy safety lamp.

H-18  Convection of gases: A vertical windmill driven by an electric lamp, a candle in a divided vertical glass tube.

H-19  Thermal radiation: A cone heater, two concave metal reflectors and an ordinary rotating-vane radiometer.

H-20  Absorption of radiation: The arc lamp ignites graphite-coated paper but not clean bond paper.

H-21  Transmission of visible and near infrared radiation by materials: Water is transparent in the visible and nearly opaque in the infrared, while iodine in CS2 solution is opaque in the visible yet more transparent in the infrared.

H-22  Thermal radiation: Radiation from various surfaces of a cube is detected with a thermopile.

H-23  Thermal energy transfers: A thermos bottle exhibit.

H-24  Comparison of specific heats: Hot cylinders of different metals melt into a paraffin slab various distances proportional to their specific heats.

H-25  Critical temperature of a gas: CO2 in a pressurized tube is passed through the critical temperature while the liquid-gas interface is projected on the wall.

H-26  Regelation of ice: A weighted wire will pass through an ice cube yet leave it whole.

H-27  A geyser: A working model of a geyser.

H-28  Cooling by evaporation: Water at one end of a closed glass container, a cryophorus, is frozen by evaporation when the other end is placed in liquid nitrogen.

H-29  Cooling by evaporation: CO2 escaping from a tank of liquid CO2 forms solid CO2.

H-30  Liquification of air: Air in a balloon is liquified when placed into liquid nitrogen and gently squeezed.

H-31  Vapor pressure of liquids: The vapor pressure of liquids riding on top of mercury in barometer tubes are compared.

H-32  Nucleation aids condensation: A fog is alternately made and evaporated in a smoke-filled flask.

H-33  The dependence of the boiling point on pressure: A flask of hot water starts to boil when ice is placed against the top of the flask.

H-34  Adiabatic Compression of a gas: Cotton in a glass cylinder ignites when the air within is rapidly compressed.

H-35  Conversion of mechanical work to heat: A water-filled pipe pops its cork when it is tightly squeezed as it rapidly rotates.

H-36  Heat engines: A working model of Hero's engine.

H-38  Heat engines: A "dipping duck" engine driven by the cooling effect of evaporating water.

H-39  Heat engines: An exhibit of a model gasoline engine and a model steam engine.

H-40  Heat engines: A large working engine consisting of a heavy wheel on a flexible axle which is driven by the asymmetric thermal expansion of the axle caused by a collection of heat lamps.

H-41  Thermal expansion of materials: A large meter is mechanically driven by an expanding rod heated with steam.

H-42  Cooling by evaporation: Liquid nitrogen in a large transparent dewar freezes after rapidly boiling when a vacuum pump is turned on.

H-43  Boyle's Law: Weights on a syringe piston.

H-44  Thermoelectric converter.

H-45  Nitinol engine: Nitinol helical spring contracts when heated, expands when cooled. When it contracts, it provides torque to turn gear connected to pulley which then turn large rod disk.

H-46  Constant volume air thermometer.

H-47  Stirling cycle engine: The wheels connected to the engine rotate while the end of the piston is heated with an alcohol flame.

H-48  Water is a poor conductor of heat.

H-49  Thermobile(Nitinol Engine):Nitinol wire is heated and then contracts causing a large wheel to turn.


See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page



L-1    Rectilinear propagation of light: A pinhole projector.

L-2    Reflection of light by intersecting plane mirrors: Two mirrors hinged at their intersection, two large mirrors and a small retroreflecting cube.

L-3    Refraction of light: Water tank for demonstrating reflection, refraction and total internal reflection at the surface.

L-4    Reflection of light: Moderately large concave, convex and plane mirrors.

L-5    The real image: The real image of a hidden light bulb is formed by a large concave mirror.

L-6    The continuous spectrum and the absorption spectra of solid materials: A spectrum is produced using a prism illuminated with an arc lamp or a slide projector.

L-7    Deviation, dispersion and achromatism: Prisms of various materials.

L-8    Reflection and refraction: The Hartl disc demonstrates ray paths through simple optical components.

L-9    Total internal reflection: A soot-covered ball in water appears silvery.

L-10  Total internal reflection: A curled lucite rod illuminated at one end.

L-11  Reflection and refraction: A change in the index of refraction at an interface is necessary for the reflection or refraction of light - a ground glass in a clear liquid with the same index of refraction is invisible.

L-12  Illumination measurement and comparison: The Lummer-Brodhun photometer head, paraffin block photometer, Weston sight meter, and the Weston illuminometer.

L-13  Imaging on the human retina: Individual students form the apparently inverted shadow image of a pin on their retinas.

L-14  Spherical and chromatic aberrations: A large lens with various masks.

L-15  Refraction of light: A mechanical analog - refer to WMS-6.

L-16  Prisms and glasses: An exhibit of various prisms and a sample of uranium glass.

L-17  Refraction of light: The shadow of a card is shortened by passing through a glass cube.

L-18  Interference in thin films: The projection of Newton's rings.

L-19  Interference in thin films: The reflected colors from a spherical soap bubble.

L-20  Interference in thin film: Mercury light reflected from mica and a microwave analog.

L-21  Interference: The Michelson interferometer.

L-22  Single and Double Slit diffraction: Various slit systems on a Cornell slitfilm diffract laser light onto wall; also available is a variable slit.

L-23  Fresnel diffraction: The shadows of various objects in a diverging laser beam.

L-24  Diffraction gratings: A spectrum is produced using a grating illuminated by a slide projector fitted with a slit.

L-25  Polarization by reflection: Light from a white lamp is reflected from window glass and analyzed with a polaroid sheet.

L-26  Polarization of mechanical vibrations: Wooden bars with rectangular cross sections - see WMS-26.

L-27  Polarization of light: Two large polaroid sheets and a third small piece on the overhead projector.

L-28  Polarization of light: A mechanical analog of the demonstration L-27.

L-29  Double refraction of light: Various bi-refringent materials are displayed on the overhead projector.

L-30  Double refraction of light: Two Rochon prisms are mounted in a horizontal light beam.

L-31  Polarization of microwaves: A polarized source and detector of microwaves are used with a polarizing grid of parallel wires.

L-32  Polarization of scattered light: Light is scattered from an arc beam by a suspension of powdered milk.

L-33  Line spectra: Mercury spectrum formed by a prism is projected.

L-34  Color by the subtractive method: A delicate set of Wratten filters.

L-35  The reflection of colored light: Various colored objects in colored illuminations.

L-36  Absorption bands: The narrow absorption bands of didymium glass blocks the sodium D lines.

L-37  Color by the additive method: An illuminated color triangle.

L-38  Color by the additive method: Colored discs mounted on a motor driven shaft.

L-39  Physics of color: Lecture notes.

L-40  Testing color vision: Ishihara color plates and slides.

L-41  Luminescent materials: Various phosphorescent and fluorescent materials illuminated by an ultraviolet lamp.

L-42  X-ray machine (this is no longer avaible)

L-43  Photoelectric effect: The current through a vacuum phototube can be displayed or used to control a relay. (same as EM-C16).

L-44  Total internal reflection: A laser beam follows a parabolic stream of water emerging from a lucite box.

L-45  Reflection and refraction: A blackboard optics kit consisting of two sources and various two-dimensional mirrors, lenses and a prism for large scale ray diagrams.

L-46  Reflection and refraction: Several parallel laser beams incident on a large mirror or lens are made visible with chalk dust.

L-47  Interference in thin films: Light is reflected from a soap film on a wire frame. Either monochromatic or white light can be used.

L-48  Interference in thin films: An air wedge between two glass plates.

L-49  Diffraction gratings and spectra: Each student uses a piece of plastic grating material to view a straight filament bulb, and mercury, hydrogen and sodium sources on the lecture tables.

L-50  Fraunhofer diffraction: Each student makes pinholes in a piece of aluminum foil and views a tiny source of white light from the zirconium arc with the foil immediately in front of the eye.

L-51  Holograms: The three dimensional nature of the images produced by one of our collection of holograms is illustrated by viewing from different angles with the TV. camera.

L-52  Total internal reflection of microwaves: Microwaves are reflected by a prism of salt and are transmitted along a flexible tube filled with plastic beads.


See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page


E&M-S1   Charging by friction: Assorted fur, silk, rods, balloons and rubber strands.

E&M-S2   Two kinds of electric charge plus conductors and insulators: Assorted materials and two electroscopes.

E&M-S3   Charging by induction and the behavior of charged conductors: Two spherical conductors,a pear-shaped conductor and various electrostatic equipment.

E&M-S4   Charging by induction: The electrophorus.

E&M-S5   Forces between electric charges: Ben Franklin's electric chimes and the small electrostatic machine.

E&M-S6   The large electrostatic machine.

E&M-S7   Various electrostatic experiments: The Leyden jar, lightning rod, rotating pinwheel, electrical breakdown of glass.

E&M-S8   Various electrostatic experiments: Standing hair on a charge person, an electrically conducting lecturer, and a multi-student circuit.

E&M-S9   Electrostatic shielding: An electroscope inside a shield of screen wire.

E&M-S10 Capacitors with solid dielectric: A dissectible Leyden jar.

E&M-S11 Variation of potential of a capacitor with a change of geometry: A large, adjustable parallel plate capacitor.

E&M-S12 Construction of capacitors: An exhibit of capacitors.

E&M-S13 A Van de Graaf electrostatic generator.

E&M-S14 Electrostatic deflection of an electron beam: Cathode-ray tube on an open mounting with assorted electrostatic materials.

E&M-S15 Storage of electric charge on a capacitor: A neon glow lamp relaxation oscillator.

E&M-S16 Capacitor: Using a 0.47 farad capacitor to light a light bulb

See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page


E&M-C1   The series element with the greatest resistance develops the greatest heat: Copper and iron wires of the same cross section in series.

E&M-C2   In series connection, the lamp of smallest wattage burns brightest: Electric lamps in series and parallel.

E&M-C3   The potential drop of electric power lines: A working model transmission line.

E&M-C4   Circuit protection by a fuse: Lead fuse wire in a simple circuit.

E&M-C5   The dependence of the electrical resistance of metals on temperature: An electric light is greatly dimmed by the heating of wire in series with it. (Same as H-10).

E&M-C6   Electrodeposition: The growth of a lead tree in an electrolytic cell is projected.

E&M-C7   Ions are necessary for electrolytic conduction: Electric conduction in a cell of variable ion concentration.

E&M-C9   Voltaic EMF: An EMF is generated by the electrodes and electrolyte of your choice.

E&M-C10 A secondary cell: A homemade lead storage cell rings a bell after being charged.

E&M-C11 An exhibit of batteries, both primary and secondary.

E&M-C12 Electrical conduction in gases: A long discharge tube driven by an induction coil is connected to a vacuum pump.

E&M-C13 Control of current by the grid of a vacuum tube: A lamp is controlled by bringing charged objects near a large electrode connected to the grid of a tube.

E&M-C14 Electrical conduction in gases and vacuum: A collection of working discharge tubes plus "plasma glober."

E&M-C16 Photoelectric effect: The current through a vacuum phototube can be displayed or used to control a relay (same as L-43).

E&M-C17 Resistance and resistivity: Two copper wires of identical length but different cross section in series.

E&M-C18 RC series circuit: Current and voltage waveforms in a series RC circuit driven by a square wave generator are displayed on an oscilloscope. Both C and R can be varied.

E&M-C19 RC circuit behavior by Dr. Stanford.

E&M-C20 Decrease of electrical resistance of a metal with decrease in temperature
E&M-C21 Piezoelectric Crystal: piezoelectric crystal connected to the neon lamp

See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page


E&M-M1   Magnetic field due to an electric current: A current-carrying wire with a large compass needle on a supporting pin.

E&M-M2   Electromagnetism and magnetic forces on materials: A large solenoid with an iron core pulls nails from a box.

E&M-M3   Magnetic forces on materials: An electromagnet for lifting loads.

E&M-M4   Magnetic forces on materials: The magnetic and electrostatic forces on materials are distinct effects as demonstrated by various rods on a rotating mount that can be attracted or repelled either magnetically or electrostatically.

E&M-M5   Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field: A wire with a large current hops out of the gap of a strong magnet.

E&M-M6   Magnetic forces on materials and currents: A freely-rotating solenoid that can be attracted or repelled with a bar magnet or made to rotate as an electric motor demonstrates that the magnetic forces on a solenoid are similar to those on a bar magnet.

E&M-M7   DC electric motor: A working model of an electric motor or generator.

E&M-M8   D'Arsonval meter movement: A large D'Arsonval galvanometer in a glass dome.

E&M-M9   Common magnetic materials: A collection of samples of iron, chromium, manganese, nickel, cobalt, silicon and lodestone ore.

E&M-M10 Magnetic properties of materials: Steady magnetic fields penetrate most materials.

E&M-M11 Magnetization of materials: Two three-pole magnets on rubber wheels behave in a paradoxical fashion.

E&M-M12 Magnetic forces on materials: A ferrite ring is magnetically suspended in the field of another ring.

E&M-M13 Magnetization of materials: A bar magnet is broken to yield two half-sized bar magnets.

E&M-M14 The magnetic field of the earth: A dip needle.

E&M-M15 Magnetization of materials: Several bars are magnetized using the field of the earth.

E&M-M16 Magnetic forces on materials: A vintage telegraph relay and sounder.

E&M-M17 Magnetic forces on materials: A vintage telephone receiver.

E&M-M18 Magnetic properties of materials: The Curie point of iron is demonstrated by the decrease in magnetic force on an intensely heated piece of iron.

E&M-M19 Magnetic properties of materials: The Curie point of gadolinium and/or dysprosium.

E&M-M20 Magnetic force on a moving electric charge - the Hall effect: The Hall voltage of a semiconductor is displayed on a meter and can be used to measure the magnetic field near various wires and materials.

E&M-M21 The force between currents in parallel wires: Two spring-mounted vertical wires attract or repel each other depending on the relative direction of the current in each.

E&M-M22 The magnetic field of the earth: A large demonstration dip needle.

E&M-M23 The torque on a loop in a magnetic field: A freely-rotating single wire loop orients itself in the magnetic field between two electromagnets with large pole faces. A multiturn loop with pointer is also available.

E&M-M24 Magnetic properties of materials: A small rod of bismuth which is diamagnetic aligns perpendicular to the field of a small, powerful magnet.

E&M-M25 Magnetic properties of materials: Liquid oxygen, which is paramagnetic, clings to the pole faces of a small magnet and forms a liquid bridge.

E&M-M26 Magnetic force on a moving electric charge: The electrons in a double beam, cold cathode tube are deflected with a magnet. (See E&M-C14.)

E&M-M27 Magnetic force on a moving electric charge: The electron beam of an oscilloscope tube is deflected with bar magnets or electro-magnets with large pancake pole faces. (See E&M-S14.)

E&M-M28 Magnetic properties of materials: The hysteresis loop for iron is displayed on an oscilloscope. (See the write-up for E&M-AC4.)

E&M-M29 Make and give away an FM antenna.
E&M-M30 Lattice of compass needles to show ferromagnetic domains
E&M-M31 e/m of the Electron Apparatus
See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks
Return to top of page


E&M-Ind1   Electromagnetic induction: Various ways of inducing a current in a coil of wire.

E&M-Ind2   Principles of a transformer: An induction coil.

E&M-Ind3   Electrical generators: A working model of an AC or DC generator.

E&M-Ind4   Electromagnetic induction: The back EMF of an electric motor is an example of induction of an EMF by motion of a circuit in a magnetic field.

E&M-Ind5   Electrical generators: A large hand-cranked generator lights several lamps.

E&M-Ind6   Eddy currents: The motion of a swinging solid metallic vane in a magnetic field is rapidly damped while the motion of a slotted vane is not.

E&M-Ind7   Eddy currents: (Arago disc) A rotating copper disk has eddy currents induced by a compass needle which also begins to rotate as a result.

E&M-Ind8   Principles of a transformer: A lamp wired to a coil is lighted by a second coil hidden from view.

E&M-Ind9   Principles of a transformer: A very versatile demountable transformer.

E&M-Ind10 Eddy currents: An aluminum ring hops off the core of an electromagnet which is suddenly energized.

E&M-Ind11 Self-inductance: An EMF is induced across an electromagnet by current changes in the coil.

E&M-Ind12 Self-inductance: A lamp and an electromagnet in series are excited by either AC or DC.

E&M-Ind13 There is an AC current in the line feeding a capacitor with AC, but no current (except transient) with DC.

E&M-Ind14 Step-up transformer: A Jacob's ladder connected to the secondary of a transformer has an arc which periodically strikes, rises, and extinguishes.

E&M-Ind15 Eddy currents and the induction motor: Various metallic objects spin in a rotating magnetic field (see write-up for E&M-AC2).

E&M-Ind16 Self-inductance: Two low voltage bulbs, one in series with a large inductor and the other in series with a resistance equal to that of the inductor, are connected to a DC supply simultaneously.

E&M-Ind17 Self-inductance: Current and voltage waveforms in a series LR circuit driven by a square wave generator are displayed on an oscilloscope. Both L and R can be varied. Also LC or LRC.

E&M-Ind17b Resonance: LRC Circuit Shows Resonance.

E&M-Ind17c Ringing and Resonance: LC Circuit Shows Ringing and Resonant Frequency.

E&M-Ind18 Same as E&M-Ind 1: with a scope replacing see through meter.

E&M-Ind19 Lenz's law demo. Aluminum tube and 2 special cylindrical magnets
E&M-Ind20 Kelvin Water drop
See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks
Return to top of page


E&M-AC1 The series RLC circuit: the various phase relations in a tunable RLC series circuit are displayed.

E&M-AC2 Eddy currents and the induction motor: Various metallic objects spin in a rotating magnetic field (also listed as E&M-Ind15).

E&M-AC3 Phasors: Shadow project of a vector to obtain a component (see description of M-K 6).

E&M-AC4 Magnetic properties of materials: The hysteresis loop for iron is displayed on an oscilloscope. (Also listed as E&M-M28.)

E&M-AC5 High frequency electrical phenomena: A Tesla coil provides current at high frequencies to light bulbs to which it is not directly connected and to weld together two wires held in your bare hands.

E&M-AC6 Electromagnetic waves: A 3.24 meter transmitter with dipole antenna and several dipole receivers demonstrate EM waves, polarization and antenna current distributions. Standing EM waves are also produced on a helically wound wire. (also listed as E&M-Ind15).

E&M-AC7 Capacitors in AC circuits: An AC supply lights a bulb in series with a capacitor while a DC supply does not. (See description of E&M-Ind 13.)

E&M-AC8 LC circuits: The RF and demodulated signals from WOI received by a simple LC combination with a diode demodulator are displayed on a dual trace scope while the class listens to the station.

See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks

Return to top of page



E&M-Nuc1 Geiger counter with sound.

E&M-Nuc2 Labnet Geiger counter computer controlled (Apple).

E&M-Nuc3 Cloud chamber: The path of Alpha particles or Beta particles can be seen in the chamber.

E&M-Nuc4 Gas model. Balls in wire cage agitated with blower. A collection of crystal models is available.

See related Video Tapes and Laser Disks
Return to top of page

Send Comments or Questions about this site to Lecture Demonstration Staff